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Panoramicflightscroatia
Mar 29, 2021
In General Discussions
Posted by medium.com With summer in full swing, and as general aviation activity is on the rise in many areas of the country, now is the perfect time for pilots to brush up on their flying skills — particularly if it’s been some time since your last flight. You’ll also want to be prepared for some of the unique challenges present with summer flying. To help, here’s a list of 10 things to keep in mind before your next flight. 1. Loss of Control (LOC) LOC continues to be the top contributor to general aviation (GA) fatal accidents. An LOC accident involves an unintended departure of an aircraft from controlled flight. Contributing factors may include: poor judgment/aeronautical decision making, failure to recognize an aerodynamic stall or spin and execute corrective action, intentional regulatory non-compliance, low pilot time in aircraft make and model, lack of piloting ability, failure to maintain airspeed, failure to follow procedure, pilot inexperience and proficiency, or the use of over-the-counter drugs, as well as alcohol, that impact pilot performance. 2. Thunderstorms A staple of summer weather, thunderstorms are a powerful force of nature that pilots must thoroughly understand and aim to avoid. They can pop up as single cell storms, develop in clusters with numerous cells, or organize into a squall line on or ahead of a cold front. There’s also the supercell storm that can have severe microbursts, large hail, and significant tornado activity. If you are using weather radar, be aware of latency issues that may exist. NTSB’s Safety Alert 17 and 11 cover NEXRAD latency issues and thunderstorm encounters respectively. Finally, rehearse your plan of action in the event you do find yourself in a thunderstorm. 3. Weather Know-how Thunderstorms aren’t the only summertime weather phenomena to be aware of. For example, do you know what weather conditions are associated with low-level wind shear? Wind shear can be attributed to passing frontal systems, temperature inversions with strong upper level winds (greater than 25 knots), and thunderstorms. Are you familiar with how sky conditions can change with an approaching front? When flying towards an approaching warm front, pilots may go from higher cirrus and cirrostratus clouds, to alto- and eventually nimbostratus clouds. It also pays to be aware of micrometeorological conditions of your home airport or where you plan to operate. This might mean understanding how airport buildings or structures could impact the wind close to the ground or during taxi, or how warm rising air over a sunbaked parking lot could impact your approach. Be aware that your approach could be affected by warm, rising air over a parking lot, or cool, sinking air over a body of water. 4. Density Altitude Simply put, density altitude is pressure altitude corrected for non-standard temperature. In other words, an increase in temperature at a par­ticular atmospheric pressure causes the density of air at that pressure to appear as though it resides at a higher physical altitude. When density altitude is high, the air is less dense. As a result, an aircraft will perform as if it is flying at a higher altitude, which results in degraded climb performance and acceleration. Density altitude is an insidious danger that must be accounted for when performing takeoff calculations. Some mitigation strategies include flying when the temperatures are cooler and/or limiting passengers and cargo to reduce your aircraft’s weight. 5. Currency- Am I Legal? This is a good time to review what makes you current to carry passengers for a VFR flight. For day flights, you must have 3 takeoffs and 3 landings in the last 90 days in the same category and class aircraft. If it’s a taildragger, those landings must be to a full stop. For night flights, you must have logged 3 takeoffs and landings to a full stop in the last 90 days. You must also have successfully completed a flight review every 24 calendar months. And don’t forget, passenger briefings are not just for the airlines. Before every flight, you must brief all passengers on the use of seat belts, and shoulder harnesses. However, for a more complete briefing, consider the acronym SAFETY: Seat belts/shoulder harnesses; Air vents and environmental controls; Fire extinguisher location and operation; Exit, emergencies, and equipment; Traffic and talking; Your questions? 6. Physiology During the hot summer months, it’s especially important to keep tabs on your physical wellbeing. Be sure to drink water regularly and heed the signs of dehydration which include headache, fatigue, cramps, sleepiness, and dizziness. Also, be sure to get plenty of rest and always assess your fitness for flight. Use the I’MSAFE checklist. 7. Runway Safety Increased flying means increased chances of busy and/or congested airport ground operations. Be vigilant while taxiing and be aware of your location at all times. To help avoid runway incursions, keep these tips in mind: Write down and read back all taxi instructions. Review the airport diagram before taxiing out or landing. Know the meaning of each airport sign. Request progressive taxi instructions if you’re unsure of your location. Another way to prepare for hot spots and avoid runway incursions is with the FAA’s From the Flight Deck video series. These videos highlight dozens of airports around the nation. They provide pilots with actual runway approach and airport taxiway footage captured with cockpit mounted cameras, combined with diagrams and visual graphics to clearly identify hot spots and other safety-sensitive items. 8. Know Your Instruments When was the last time you had a refresher on aircraft instruments? With the potential for weather conditions to change rapidly in the summer, it’s a good time to review some of the basics. For example, do you recall the three main instruments that operate via the pitot-static system? That would be the airspeed indicator, the vertical speed indicator, and the altimeter. When a pilot understands how each instrument works and recognizes when an instrument is malfunctioning, they can safely utilize the instruments to their fullest potential. 9. Emergencies The possible causes of an aerial emergency are about as varied as the number of aircraft and the pilots who fly them. That’s why it’s critical to build your knowledge and regularly practice procedures to deal with that proverbial “anything,” whether it’s the oil pressure gauge whose needle just dipped below the comforting green-is-good range, or a VFR flight that quickly evolves into instrument meteorological conditions.
Safe Summer Flying for General Aviation content media
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Panoramicflightscroatia
Mar 29, 2021
In General Discussions
How to Stay Safe? Stay safe and enjoy flying! This section addresses important safety risks in General Aviation. Several risks are addressed. The first sections concern Loss of Control In-flight (LOC-I) across all phases of flight and Loss of Control in Approach and Landing across all phases of flight. This article addresses Loss of Control at take-off. For each type of risk, a fact sheet is provided that describes the seriousness of LOC-I and the factors involved. Safety promotion material provide tips to mitigate the risk and avoid having an accident. Safety promotion may include safety leaflets and brochures, videos, posters and Safety Information Bulletins (SIBs). Promotional material has been developed by EASA, EGAST, National Aviation Authorities, associations and the GA community, and links to FAA and the General Aviation Joint Safety Council (GA-JSC) in the US have been provided so as to give a holistic overview. Getting acquainted with this material will help you stay safe and enjoy your flight. Loss of Control at take-off Loss of control at take-off is often the result of any of the following factors: insufficient control of the aircraft while still on the ground, incorrect rotation airspeed, wrong aerodynamic configuration, wrong loading of the aircraft (or incorrect securing of cargo), crosswind exceeding pilot or aircraft capability or wrong aircraft attitude at rotation and during the initial climb phase. During take-off, pilots aim to leave the ground, which may lead to inappropriate reactions in the case of unexpected behaviours of the aircraft. For example, in the case of an early stall that may have been the result of an insufficient airspeed, resist the urge to pull on the stick/yoke (with the intent to climb), which would increase the angle of attack and worsen the situation. Pilots should be carefully instructed about the danger of placing the aircraft in the back side of the power curve after take-off. How important is LOC-I at take-off risk in GA? Take-off is the most risky phase of flight regarding the risk of Loss of Control in Flight accidents. Data on LOC-I accidents, both fatal and non-fatal, indicate that the highest number of accidents occurs during take-off. More on risks: GA LOC-I at take-off fact sheet More information, including accident data and factors involved in LOC-I at take-off, is provided in this GA LOC-I fact sheet. Taking off safely and successfully Flight preparation The key of a successful take-off is preparation! Before actually performing your flight, think twice and be sure that you and your aircraft are fully prepared. Carefully consider the aircraft’s configuration, its weight and balance, the length of the runway, as well as the outside temperature, wind force, direction and variations in these. Review the limitations and performance section of the Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM). Check weather: Do not bet your life on weather evolution. Make sure that the weather is good enough for performing the flight, while taking into account flight regime (IFR, VFR), experience, aircraft performance, etc. In case of doubt, postpone your flight! Flight preparation includes the following: Airfield specificities. Is there any obstacle on the initial climb path? Are you departing from a high altitude aerodrome? Are you operating on a grass runway? Is the runway wet? Is there any specific standard take-off procedure? Remember a grass and/or wet runway will increase friction and thus increase your take-off distance. Moreover, a wet runway will increase your braking distance in the case of an emergency and you may face aquaplaning followed by a potential loss of control on ground. Take-off distance. Be sure that the runway length (TORA, Take-Off Run Available) exceeds the take-off distance required for your aircraft. Aircraft weight & balance. Check compliance with the approved limits provided by the aircraft manufacturer. Check seat attachment points and secure all objects to avoid unwanted movements during the acceleration phase, at rotation or during climb. Wind conditions. Carefully observe wind conditions so as to take-off with a headwind (unless special procedures or circumstances prevent to do so). Be prepared to encounter crosswind or an unstable wind regime (gusts). Take-off parameters. Review power settings, slats & flaps configuration (if any) and fuel-air mixture control (when applicable), etc. Always refer to the documentation provided by the aircraft manufacturer. If in doubt, do ask a Flight Instructor! Temperature. The effect of temperature on take-off performance, especially in summer, can be dramatic. Have you heard about density-altitude? Do you know how to calculate it and take its effect into account? Pre-flight inspection Inspect the aircraft to detect any issue that could endanger the flight and check that the stall alarm is working. Remove covers from pitot tube(s) and static port(s) before flight. Pre take-off checks Start your engine(s) and run the engine & power circuit checks, following the corresponding checklist(s), to detect possible malfunctions that could lead to a loss of power at take-off. Taking off with full power is always reassuring! Check that all controls offer free and correct movements and adjust trim to take-off position. Check the braking system: Correct braking performance is necessary to safely stop the aircraft in case of a rejected take-off. And remember: Use the pre take-off check list before taking off! Pre take-off briefing Near the holding point, voice the pre take-off briefing. This will increase your preparedness and your ability to manage unexpected situations. Be aware of the take-off airspeed, flaps/slats setting, power settings, target airspeed during initial climb and any specificities of the airfield (e.g. obstacles in the take-off path or urbanisation around the airport) that require special attention. Voice what your flight plan contains after take-off, together with any backup-up plans in case of failure prior to take-off and minor or major failure following take-off. Also, state at which height you will change the slats/flaps configuration and the associated target climb airspeed. Use the corresponding checklist so that you do not miss any important action! Double check that the approach and runway are free of incoming or outgoing traffic. Use your VHF to announce your intentions (uncontrolled airfield). Take-off Align properly on the runway centreline to initiate the take-off! Accelerate gradually while keeping the aircraft on the centreline. Check for alarms and check that the speed indicator is working and that take-off power is available (as per the indication of the rev counter – RPM, torque, etc.). Pay attention to the airspeed and aircraft attitude! When reaching the take-off speed, pull gently on the stick/yoke to take-off. Excessive pitch can lead to exceeding the critical angle of attack (AoA), leading to a stall! Control airspeed and aircraft attitude with reference to the horizon (“attitude flying”). Initial climb Once airspeed reaches the target initial climb airspeed, wait to reach the minimum safety height to change slats/flaps configuration and target the climb airspeed. If you plan to turn during climb, keep the bank angle below the reference value suitable for your aircraft type (such as 20°) so that the climb rate doesn’t decrease too much. Further, when performing a turn, the load factor increases and the lift needed to sustain a level flight increases. Conclusion Take-off is not a very difficult manoeuvre but it does require preparation, organisation and accuracy. Training with a qualified instructor is a good way to improve skills and gain confidence! How to prevent LOC-I at take-off accidents? Always use the guidance provided by the manufacturer for your aircraft and seek advice from a Flight Instructor. Various Safety promotion products developed by the Agency, in cooperation with externals, or by other organisations, are presented. This list is not exhaustive; you are encouraged to look for additional material on the internet. It is good practice to exchange flying experiences in your aero-club and in internet forums to learn about what can happen and about conditions specific to your base and destination airfields. Internet forums also provide a platform where aerodynamics, flight mechanics, weather, navigation, flying techniques and other basic subjects can be discussed.
Safety at take-off - posted by EASA content media
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Panoramicflightscroatia

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